We all have an image of our better selves – of how we are when we act ethically or are “at our best.”
We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government or an ethical society should be.
Ethics really has to do with all these levels –
- acting ethically as individuals,
- creating ethical organisations and governments, and
- making our society as a whole ethical in the way it treats everyone.
What is Ethics?
Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behaviour that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves – as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals and so on.
It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT:
- Ethics is not the same as feelings. Feelings provide important information for our ethical choices. Some people have highly developed habits that make them feel bad when they do something wrong, but many people feel good even though they are doing something wrong. And often our feelings will tell us it is uncomfortable to do the right thing if it is hard.
- Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical. Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it. Law can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups. Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems. In which case consideration needs to be given in a modern society to improving the law. Perhaps that is why some experts suggest “BUSINESS ETHICS BEGINS WHERE THE LAW ENDS”. The law should be the minimum but certainly not the only measure of acceptable behaviour.
- Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms.Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). “When in Rome, do as the Romans do” is not a satisfactory ethical standard.
- Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. Science may provide an explanation for what humans are like. But ethics provides reasons for how humans ought to act. And just because something is scientifically or technologically possible, it may not be ethical to do it.
- Ethics is not religion. Ethics applies to everyone, whether religious or not. Most religions do advocate high ethical standards but sometimes do not address all the types of problems we face.